Second year

The second year of the Master N2 prepares to fundamental or applied PhD's or to high level jobs in nanotechno-logy industries.  It  offers four international specializations with all courses taught in english, and one track accessible to students working in industry ("en alternance"):

Students who have already completed a first year in a Master program or a 4 years bachelor program, and who have the scientific background appropriate for one of those specializations, can apply directly to the second year program. Read here and contact the person in charge of each specialization to get more informations about the application procedure.

The formation is based on the acquisition of an extensive knowledge in nanoscience with a large choice of fundamental courses and on an early immersion in research laboratories during the first semester. Each specialization offers also the possibility to combine physics, chemistry and biology courses in order to obtain a broad formation covering the different nanoscience research areas.

The general curriculum of 60 ECTS is organized in 5 blocks.

I. General interest courses (6 ETCS)
            Foreign language (french for non-french speaking students):  3 ECTS
            Professional Insertion: 3 ECTS among
                       Intellectual Property and Valorization  (3 ECTS)
                       Capita Selecta Lectures Series in Nanosciences (3 ECTS)
                       Other courses offered by the Service of Transverse Teachings (SET)

II. Common program in nanosciences (6 ETCS)
                       Micro- Nanofabrication  (3 ECTS)
                       Research Training (3 ETCS)

III. Core courses in the choosen specialization: 9 ETCS
(See the page of each specialization for the courses description)

            Nanophysics
                       Physics and elaboration of nano-structures (3 ECTS)
                       Quantum nano-electronics   (3 ECTS)
                       Adhesion, friction and molecular bonding (3 ECTS)

            Nanochemistry
                       Molecular nano-materials (6 ETCS)
                       Inorganic nanoparticules (3 ETCS)

            Nanobiosciences and nano-biotechnologies
                       Characterization of (bio)molecular interactions ( 6 ECTS)
                       Biosensors & Micro-arrays (3 ECTS)

            Nano-medecine and structural biology
                       Magnetic resonance imaging (3 ETCS)
                       Image Processing and Molecular markers (6 ECTS)

IV. Broadening courses: 15 ECTS. Students choose any course offered in the list below. They can also choose a core course from another specialization.
Note that due to scheduling issues, it is not possible to make all the possible choices of electives compatible in the time-table. Transverse courses will be made compatible to all specializations.

                       Quantum engineering quantum information (3 ECTS)
                       Nanophotonics and plasmonics (3 ECTS)
                       Nano-magnetism and spintronics (3 ECTS)
                       Nanostructures for energy applications   (3 ECTS)
                       Modelling in nanosciences (3 ECTS)
                       Complex liquids from nano to macro (3 ECTS)
                       Characterization of molecular (bio)materials, nano-objects and interfaces (6 ECTS)
                       Nanocomposite materials (3 ECTS)
                       Molecular electronics and magnetism (3 ECTS)
                       Polymers for nano-electronics  (3 ECTS)
                       Optics for biological systems (3 ECTS)
                       Microfluidics (3 ECTS)
                       Surface functionnalization (3 ECTS)
                       Cell signaling (3 ECTS)
                       Physiology and neurosciences (6 ECTS)                     
                       Molecular markers for medical imaging (3 ECTS)                    
                       Structural Biology (6 ETCS)
                       Medical Image Processing (3 ECTS)
                       Optical spectroscopy (3 ECTS)

         Transverse courses (for all specialization)
                       Nano-safety  (3 ECTS)
                       Nano-pores and membranes technologies (3 ECTS)
                       Engineering of Biomaterials ( 3 ECTS)          

V. Master thesis: 24 ECTS.

 

Micro- nanofabrication - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Introduce the students to the fabrication of micro- and nano-devices.

Content: The students follow a serie of lectures given by scientists expert in the field of nano-fabrication and nano-technology facilities in the Grenoble area. The topic of these lectures are
I. Engineering of surfaces
II. Micro and nanofabrication
III. Nanomaterials elaboration
IV. Surface functionnalization
V. Molecular recognition, vectorization, imaging :toward intelligent nanosystems -

Then the students work in groups of 4 in order to perform a project in nano-fabrication. Each group gets a specific project and a a supervisor from one of the research laboratories or nano-technology facilities.

Nano-safety - Management and prevention of a potential risk - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Nanotechnologies give access to new and interesting properties of materials. Applications or potential applications of nanomaterials are today very numerous in research, industrial processes but also everyday life. As a consequence, impact on health and safety of those new substances becomes important. Indeed, assessment on life cycle analysis is a key element of development. This course presents the current knowledge and research regarding the potential risks associated to the development of nanotechnologies, organized around 3 axes:

  • Toxicology and ecotoxicology current knowledge, thanks to presentation of latest scientific studies on the subject,
  • occupationnal potential risks : how to manage an emerging risk ? what’s mandatory ? what kind of metrology can we use ? what are the best practices in order to prevent impact on health and environment ?
  • social perception of nanotechnologies over the world and over different cultures.

Detailed content:
1. Presentation of definitions and applications of nano-objects
International definitions in place, current environement, examples of emissions in different economic activities, field of applications (environment, energy, communication, health, everyday life, …)
2. Nanotoxicology and ecotoxicology
     What’s known , what’s going on ? what are the barriers of knowledge ?
     Key elements for a critical and objective reading of scientific edited publications.
3. Metrology :
      Behavior of nano-objects in the air
      Technologies and devices for nano-metrology, possibilities and limits
       Use of devices during a practical session
4. Regulations or recommandations available
5. Preventing measures: best practices available, as currently deployed in different organisms or industries

Nano-pores and membranes technologies - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: From the sequencing and electronic analysis of single molecules, to waste water treatment, desalinisation, or osmotic energy harvesting, , nanopores and membranes technologies are a rapidly growing area of nanosciences with increasing applications in the fields of sustainable energy, environment, and nanobiotechnologies. The aim of the course is to provide the theoretical concepts governing the transport of fluids, ions and molecules in nanochannels and confined spaces.  It will highlight the new properties and functionnalities which arise from the interplay of surface interactions in solutions,  flow and transport.

 Content:
1. A general overview of nanopores and membrane technologies.
2. The basics of surface transport in fluids
     . Flow and diffusion at a nano-scale
     . Ions and molecule surface interactions in fluids
3. Coupled transport at surfaces and in nano-channels.
      Electro-osmosis, diffusio-osmosis and beyond
      Weak out-of-equilibrium limit and Onsager relations
      From nano properties to macroscopic efficiency
      Example of application: energy harvesting/conversion     
4. Non-linear and rectification effects.
     Nano-fluidic diodes, osmotic diode, and transistor.
5. Nano-pores for single molecules transport and detection
6. Membranes for fuel cells.

Prerequisites: Basics in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and semi-conductors.

Engineering of biomaterials and bio-compatible surfaces - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: The aim of this class is to discover natural materials that form our tissues in the body and to understand what are the current progresses and challenges in the field of implantable biomaterials.
We will also focus on the modification of surface properties of biomaterials in terms of chemistry, topography and mechanical properties. The main steps of inflammatory reaction after implantation of a biomaterial will be reviewed. We will then discover the current products and major advances in the field of cardio-vascular implants and orthopedic biomaterials. Finally, we will present the concepts and methods used in tissue engineering.

Content:
1) Structure of natural materials : Building blocks at different length scales

  • Cell / Extracellular matrix proteins / Polysaccharides
  • Interaction of a cell with its environment / Adhesion
  • Stem cells, concept of niche (gradients, position, mechanics)
  • Examples of organization of some tissues (vascular wall, cartilage, bone)
  • Example of peculiar properties of natural materials : superhydrophobicity, silk and super-strong adhesion

2) Overview of implantable biomaterials

  • Definition, History
  • Different types of biomaterials (metals, ceramics, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers)
  • Concept of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

3) Importance of surface properties : from fundamental studies to applications

  • Chemistry (presence of specific receptors, growth factors)
  • Micro and nano-topography
  • Mechanical properties

4) Reaction against a foreign body

  • Foreign body reaction
  • Inflammatory cells
  • Biocompatibility tests
  • Development/regulatory issues

5) Design and function of cardiovascular implants

  • Stents
  • Vascular Grafts

6) Biomaterials for orthopaedic applications

  • Different needs in orthopaedics
  • Titanium
  • Metallic alloys
  • Ceramics as bone grafts

7) Tissue engineering / Stem cell and precursor cell-based therapies

  • Different types of stem cells and their potential
  •  Analysis of transcription factors
  • Expression of proteins to assess cell differentiation

Prerequisites: Surface chemical functionalization techniques

Nano-structures for energy applications - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: This course is at the crossroad between two scientific and technological domains: energy and nanomaterials. Both domains are rich in innovations, challenges and opportunities. For instance, among other sustainable green energy technologies, solar energy is still developed to offer an alternative to fossil fuel energy, with efforts devoted to cost reduction, efficiency improvement and use of abundant materials. We will see how nanomaterials can help improving performance of devices related to energy, in very different domains (solar energy, building, energy storage…). The course will first deal with the contexts linked with energies and nano-materials. The synthesis, characterization and main properties of nanomaterials will be presented. Applications will deal with solar energy and nanomaterials, other energy production and nanomaterials, energy storage and finally nanomaterials and energy in buildings.
This course will be presented by different scientists aiming at presenting physical and chemical aspects of nanomaterials, as well as with complementary approaches such as fundamental, experimental and applied ones. In addition to basic concepts many illustrations and challenges still persisting will be briefly presented during the whole course. 

Content:
Chapter 1 : Energies and nanomaterials: generalities (3 hours)
Introduction; context and challenges dealing with energy; energy and power; production, storage, distribution (smart grids) and use of energy; some illustrations.

Chapter 2 : Nanomaterials & nanotechnologies : an introduction (6 hours)
2.1- Description of nanomaterial families; functional nanomaterials.
2.2- Introduction to synthesis, characterization, functionalization of nanomaterials; some applications and challenges.
2.3- Main physical properties of nanomaterials; some applications and challenges. 

Chapter 3 – Solar energy and nanomaterials (5 hours)
3.1 Basics of semiconductors, Basics of quantum optics and light-matter interaction, principle of a solar cell, current research (the three generations of solar cells), nanostructured transparent electrodes, inorganic photovoltaics and nanomaterials;
3.2 Emerging thin film photovoltaic: organic solar cells, perovskite solar cells, hybrid solar cells.

Chapter 4 – Other energy conversion technologies and nanomaterials (4 hours)
4.1- Chemical based energies (fossil fuels, biomass, from algae…) and nanostructures (homo- or hetero-geneous catalysers, molecular motors… );
4.2- Physical based energies (piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, wind power…) and nanostructures (nanowires, nanostacking…).

Chapitre 5 – Energy storage (4 hours)
Why and how storing energy ? Hydroelectricity, hydrogen, electrochemical storage… Storage of energy and nanomaterials; ongoing researches and challenges.

Chapitre 6 – Nano-materials and energy in buildings (2 hours)
Physics and use of nanomaterials in devices used in buildings: lightning (LED, OLED), smart windows, energy harvesting, building insulation (very high insulators) etc…

Prerequisites: general concepts in physics and materials science

Quantum engineering quantum information - 3 ECTS

Goal: Quantum communication and information processing (QIPC) is a rapidly growing field that takes advantage of the most counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics to develop new technologies. In this framework, no-cloning theorem is exploited to communicate more securely, while coherence and entanglement become resources to compute in a more efficient way than in the classical world. Moreover, approaching the quantum limits paves the road to ultra-sensitive measurements in various fields of physics such as photonics, mechanics or electrical engineering. In these various fields, the ability to beat decoherence, namely, to isolate and control quantum systems, was crucial. Technological progresses have allowed fulfilling these challenging objectives, such that quantum protocols are now investigated in various experimental setups.

This course will present an introduction to quantum information and more generally to quantum engineering, with examples taken from photonics and superconducting circuits. It will expose the mains tools and concepts of quantum technologies, for students curious about this intriguing topic, whether they envisage embarking on a PhD, or they just want to acquire a scientific background in this domain.

Content: Basics of quantum optics and light-matter interaction will be presented. General concepts relevant for quantum information, e.g. quantum bits, Bloch sphere or decoherence, will be introduced and illustrated using superconducting circuits and photonics based physical systems:
Theory : Quantum measurement theory, entanglement, decoherence, exemples of elementary quantum information protocols and quantum gates
Experimental aspects illustrated with superconducting qubits :
         Two-level systems, Bloch sphere, Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes, quantum limits of amplification
Experimental aspects illustrated with photonics :
         Coherent states, single photons, quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation

Prerequisites: Basic quantum mechanics

Nano-photonics and plasmonics - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: This lecture introduces the light-matter interaction in semiconductor microstructures and metallic nanostructures. These objects allow tailoring and localizing the field distribution and polarization even at a subwavelength scale and can be used to boost the light-matter interaction with quantum emitters (including absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission). Amazing effects such as enhancement or inhibition of spontaneous emission, nonlinear effects down to the single photon level have been demonstated. This paves the way to new generation of optoelectronic devices like single photon sources, quantum optical gates, nanoscale optical modulators, ultrasensitive sensors, etc.

Content:
1. Basics of quantum light-matter interaction

  • Spontaneous emission (SpE) CANNOT be understood if light is described classically
  • Quantum theory of light : main results
  • SpE rate of a two-level atom in free space
  • Photon storage and confinement in a 0D cavity (definitions of Q and V for a discrete mode)
  • Introduction to basic CQED effects : strong-coupling regime, SpE rate enhancement and inhibition 

2. Dielectric optical microcavities

  • How to confine photons with dielectrics : Bragg reflectors, total internal reflection
  • Low-dimensionality photonic structures: planar cavities, wires, micropillars, WGM cavities, photonic crystals
  • Optical characterization
  • Short introduction to modelling tools
  • State-of-the-art values for (Q,V)

3. CQED with artificial atoms

  • Introduction to semiconductor quantum dots
  • Weak coupling regime : Purcell effect, SpE inhibition in photonic crystals & thin wires
  • Strong coupling regime for a single QD in a cavity

4. CQED-based opto-electronics

  • Single-mode single-photon sources
  • Microcavity lasers
  • Single-photon optical gates

5. Micro-cavity polaritons

  • Quantum well excitons 
  • Strong coupling of QW excitons and photons in planar cavities
  • Dynamics of polariton relaxation / polariton lasers
  • Bose-Einstein condensation of polaritons

6. Electrodynamics of metals: Application of Maxwell's equation in matter to the case of metals; relation between the conductivity and optical dielectric constant. Drude model of the conductivity and metals in real life.

7. Surface plasmon polaritons. Propagation at a metal/dielectric interface: dispersion relation and mode description. Extension to multilayer systems

8. Nanostructure for coupling and guiding SPPs. Review of the possible strategies for launching and guiding surface plasmon-polaritons.

9. Localized surface plasmons. Using the spherical particles, the main properties of plasmonics resonances in nanostructures will be introduced (enhancement, near-field, scattering and absorption cross sections…)

10. Optical process exaltation by plasmons. This chapter will be devoted to applications of plasmonics in sensing thank to nanoscale field localization and enhancement (SERS, PL, SHG…)

Prerequisites: Basic courses of quantum mechanics (up to time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule), Maxwell’s equations, dielectric materials, wave optics.

Nano-magnetism and spintronics - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: This lecture is an introduction to the field of nanomagnetism, also providing basic ideas in spin electronics. The continuous progress in patterning, instrumentation and simulation over the past decades has made possible the investigation of low-dimensional magnetic elements such as thin films and nanostructures. New properties arise in these due to the reduction of dimensionality and the ability to built artificial stackings. Beyond the development of fundamental knowledge, these bring new functionalities of interest for technology. Such is the case for Giant Magneto-Resistance, an effect combining together electronics and magnetism, as the resistance of a stacked device may strongly depend on the arrangement of magnetization in the sub-stacks. It was discovered in the mid 80's and led to the Nobel prize in Physics in 2007, and enters many applications such as magnetic sensors and encoders, data storage and processing, bio- and heath devices. Grenoble has played an active role in the development and magnetism from fundamentals to permanent magnets and currently spin electronics. Several large laboratories and research teams are devoted to these, with links to companies in Information/Communication technology or Health / Biology

Content:
I Setting the ground for nanomagnetism
   1 Magnetic fields and magnetic materials
   2 Units in Magnetism
   3 The various types of magnetic energy
   4 Handling dipolar interactions
   5 The Bloch domain wall
   6 Magnetometry and magnetic imaging techniques

II Magnetism and magnetic domains in low dimensions
   1 Magnetic ordering in low dimensions
   2 Magnetic anisotropy in low dimensions
   3 Domains and domain walls in thin films
   4 Domains and domain walls in nanostructures
   5 An overview of characteristic quantities

III Magnetization reversal
   1 Macrospins – The case of uniform magnetization
   2 Magnetization reversal in nanostructures
   3 Magnetization reversal in extended systems

IV Precessional dynamics of magnetization
   1 Ferromagnetic resonance and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation
   2 Spin waves
   3 Precessional switching of macrospins driven by magnetic field
   4 Precessional motion of domain walls and vortices driven by a magnetic field

V Spintronics and beyond
   1 Simple views on charge transport and electronic band structures
   2 RKKY coupling
   3 Anisotropic Magneto-Resistance (AMR)
   4 Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR)
   5 Tunneling Magneto-Resistance (TMR)
   6 Spin torque effects
   7 Coupling of magnetism with other degrees of freedom

Prerequisites: Knowledge in Electrodynamics, Statistical physics, basic mathematical skills.

Modelling in nano-sciences - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: The aim of the course is to introduce the concepts, methods and tools required to model the physical properties of nanoscopic systems and their coupling to the environment. The course will be illustrated by examples in optics, transport, mechanics and magnetism and by numerical simulations (Comsol).

Content: The course will be divided into three main parts:

  • Electronic properties of nanoscopic systems: band structures of 2D layered materials, quantum confinement in semiconductors, quantum transport.
  • Finite elements methods at nanoscale: nanomechanics, nanofluidics, nanophotonics (guided modes, plasmons), nanomagnetism.
  • Dynamics of quantum systems: matrix density, master equations, open quantum systems, application to quantum optics, nanomechanics, spins dynamics.

Prerequisites: Knowledge in quantum physics, solid state physics, semiconductor physics

Complex fluids from nano to macro - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Complex fluids are mixtures of different materials and fluids. Usually, we consider the coexistence between two phases: solid–liquid (like suspensions or solutions of polymers, proteins or DNA), solid–gas (like granular materials), liquid–gas (like foams) or liquid–liquid (like emulsions). Complex fluids exhibit unusual mechanical responses to applied stress or deformation. The mechanical response includes non-linear behaviors such as shear thinning or shear thickening as well as large fluctuations (elastic turbulence). The mechanical properties of complex fluids can be attributed to characteristics such as polymer unfolding, caging, or clustering on multiple length scales. The course deals mainly with two kinds of complex fluids: polymer fluids and suspensions.

Content:
1. Introduction to Complex fluids in nature and in industry
2. Conservation laws. Matter, Momentum and Energy
3. Standard flows (Poiseuille flow, Couette flow).
4. Dissipation
5. Polymer fluids

  • Non-linear fluids and shear dependent viscosity
  • Normal stresses and Weissenberg experiment
  • From nano to macro: starting from a polymer chain to macroscopic properties

6. Suspensions

  • Rheology
  • Homogenization
  • Taylor dispersion
  • Active suspension (natural and artificial nano and micro-swimmers)

Presrequisites: Basis of hydrodynamics and statistical physics

Characterization of (bio)molecular interactions, nano-materials, surfaces and interfaces  6 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Introduce the main analytical techniques to characterize molecular and biomolecular interactions, nanomaterials, surfaces and interfaces will be presented by the lecturers.

Content:

  • Electronic microscopies
  • Near field microscopies (AFM,STM,SNOM,…)
  • Note that a more detailed approach of these techniques is available as an elective course.
  • Surface analysis (XPS, AES, SIMS, EXAFS…)
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Large facilities (neutrons, ESRF)
  • Optical techniques (ellipsometry, spectroscopies, SPR, OWLS,..)
  • Nanogravimetry

Prerequisites: Mécanique quantique, physique du solide, physique statistique. Electromagnétise, propagation d'ondes (guidées).

Nanocomposite materials - 3 ECTS
Contact:
This course will provide background on critical issues in synthesis, fabrication, processing, and characterization of nanocomposites. The major thrust would be the challenges in manufacturing low cost real-life components in industrial applications, commercial success stories, its impact on current established material market, and future directions. We will discuss the underlying scientific principles that guide the study of structure-property relationships and will touch on parallel fields of investigation with high relevance to nanocomposites. The course will also cover the incorporation of a variety of nanophases into polymeric matrixes to provide functional materials, the importance of controlling surface energy, methods for achieving dispersion and common techniques for characterizing nanocomposite materials. The influence of the chemical nature of the dispersed (organic or mineral) elements on the different morphologies observed will be described.
Prerequisites: Introduction to polymer sciences and engineering.

Polymers for micro- nano-electronics - 3 ECTS
Contact:
Brief description: This course will provide background on critical issues on the main pi-conjugated polymers/carbon structures (polymers, semiconductors and organic conductors, carbon nanotubes and graphene ) used as the active materials for electronics and energy applications. The different methods of chemical, electrochemical synthesis and recent synthetic methodologies will be reviewed. We will discuss the underlying scientific principles that guide the study of structure-property relationships and the supramolecularity effects on the modulation of electronic properties. Applications of conjugated polymers in their undoped (organic solar cell, LEDs, transistors…) doped state (antistatic layers, corrosion, actuators, electrochromic, sensors ...) will be described. In a comparative approach, similar applications of carbon nanotubes and graphene will be presented.
See here for more detailed description
Prerequisites: Master 1 level in chemistry and physics

Molecular electronics and magnetism - 3 ECTS
Contact: Cyrille Train
Summary: This course is an introductory course on molecular electronics and magnetism accessible for both chemists and physicists. Accordingly, it will be given by a physicist and a chemist to browse the two aspects of the subject. It will present in an illustrated and accessible fashion the principles of quantum  electron transport in molecular and nanoscale devices and offer an overview of this active field of Nanosciences. It will insist on the effect of inserting magnetically active molecules in such set-ups.

Detailed outline:

  • Physical/Chemical basis (distinct lecture for the two publics to bring them to a common language)
  • Mesoscopic transport
  • Exchange interaction : the Kahn’s model
  • Magnetic anisotropy, a key ingredient
  • One-electron transistor
  • Transport through a quantum box
  • Synthesis of single-moleucle magnets
  • Grafting and probing SMM on surfaces
  • Measuring the magnetic properties of single molecules
  • Article analysis

Prerequistes : Basis in coordination and supramolecular chemistry. Basis in electronic transport.

Optics for biological systems - 3 ECTS
Contact Martial BALLAND
Goal: Using a highly accessible style and format these lectures and labworks will provide an understanding of the underlying principles, benefits, and limitations of optical techniques currently used in biology.

Content: Without relying on complex mathematics we are going to address basic concepts in imaging such as contrasting techniques, fluorescence and also explores advanced techniques such as quantitative fluorescence, three-dimensional imaging, nonlinear microscopy. Of course we'll also have to spend some time on multiple appendices on cell handling, labeling, and image manipulation.

Prerequisites: basics of optics, molecular biology

Microfluidics - 3 ECTS
Contact: Laurent DAVOUST  . See also here

Content: •Modeling and calculation of microflows
              •Digital/continuous microfluidics
              •Optimization tools for mixing at microscale
              •Tools for the prediction of chemical kinetics within bulk or at surfaces

Prerequisites: Continuum mechanics,  Laplace/Fourier transforms, Electrodynamics.
Bibliography:      •Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics, Happel & Brenner, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1983
                          • Intermolecular forces & surface forces, Israelachvili, Academic Press, 2nd Ed., 2000

Surface functionnalization and electrochemistry - 3 ECTS
Contact:   See also here
Goal: This course aims at giving a deep understanding of methods for modifying material surface properties for use in biotechnologies and micro-nanoelectronics. It contains basics on surface physico-chemistry, electrochemistry and chemical grafting.

Content:   •Material interface
                •Basics on electrochemistry
                •Polymer adsorption
                •Langmuir-Blodgett layers, layer-by-layer assemblies
                •Chemical grafting on gold
                •Silanization
                •Radical grafting
                •Conductive polymers
                •Micro patterning
Prerequisites: Basics in chemistry

Cell signaling (3 ECTS)
Contact: Franz BRUCKERT  See also here 

Goal: Using illustrative examples, lectures will explain the basics of inter- and
intracellular communication, the different techniques to study cell responses and the
complementarity between experimental approaches at different scales.

Content:
Signal transduction at the plasma membrane
Second messenger production
Regulation of protein activity by phosphorylation
Signal transduction to the nucleus and transcription regulation
Termination of cell responses
G-protein coupled receptors
Receptors with tyrosine kinase activity
Control of the eukaryotic cell cycle
Molecular basis of cancers

Prerequisites: Molecular and cellular biology
Bibliography: Stryer : Biochemistry, filth edt, Freeman http://bcs.whfreeman.com/biochem5/
Alberts et al. Molecular biology of the cell fouth edt. Garland http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books

Molecular markers for medical imaging - 3 ECTS
Contact:   See also here
Goal: Series of seminars on the development and use of contrast agents and molecular markers in biomedical imaging and therapy.

Content: Contrast agents and molecular markers for ultrasound, X-Ray and MRI imaging
Development and use of visible and infrared fluorophores
Application to cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Prerequisites: Molecular biology and physiology courses

Physiology and Neurosciences - 6 ECTS
Contact:       See also here
Goal: This course covers basics concepts in physiology from cardiac, respiratory and renal physiology to the knwoledge of some human pathologies. It introduces main conceps in neurosciences, from neuron to simple neural fonctions, and some neurodegenerative diseases. The course provides contacts with physicians and medical research.

Content :      Lectures on Physiology
         - Action potential and synaptic transmission
         - Molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction
         - Renal physiology: kidney organization, nephrons, excretion and dialysis, homeostasis, regulation of pH, blood pressure and blood volume by hormones, renal failure, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis
         - Cardiovascular physiology, physiology of respiration : gas exchanges, gas transport, cardiac output, regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, hemostasis, main cardiovascular diseases and respiratoiry diseases
         - Regulation of blood glucose concentration
Lectures in neurosciences
          - Location and functions of the nervous system
          - Basic principles of neurosciences : cells, electrical properties of cell membranes, cell excitability, membrane channels, action potential, synapses, neurotransmitters, other kinds of transmission
          - Main physiological consequences of neurotransmission : post-synaptic potentials, synaptic dendritic integration, neuronal phenotypes, groups of cells, importance of connectivity
          - Neural coding : example of the muscle spindle, generalization, population coding
          - Central pattern generators : basic principles, example of the respiratory centers
          - Plasticity : short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity, structural plasticity (axonal and dendritic modifications)

Prerequisites: Molecular biology course and cell signaling course

Sethien et al. Level set methods and fast matching methods, Cambridge university press 1999

Optical Spectroscopy - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Optical spectroscopy concerns itself with the interaction between light and matter. In this lecture we present a theoretical framework to discuss the absorption, emission, and luminescence properties of atomic and molecular systems. Experimental techniques will be discussed, including modern and state-of-the-art techniques used in the environmental (e.g., infrared trace gas detection) and life sciences (such as Raman non-linear spectroscopies).

Medical Image Processing - 3 ECTS
Contact: . See also here
Goal: Introduction to medical Imaging
Content:    Introduction
                 • X-Ray computed tomography
                 • Image segmentation
                 • Binary image quantification
                 • 3D imaging
                 • the DICOM standard
                 • Labworks: LW1 - Radon transform and image reconstruction techniques
                                    LW2 - Image segmentation : threshold and snakes
                                    LW3 - Image quantitative analysis

Prerequisite: Image Processing
Bibliography: A. Kak, M. Slaney principles of computerized tomographic imaging, IEEE press, 1998
A. Jain Fundamentals of digital image processing, Prentice Hall, 1989
H. Fanet Imagerie médicale à base de photons, Editions Lavoisier 2010
Sethien et al. Level set methods and fast matching methods, Cambridge university press 1999