First year programme

Contacts: fabien.dubois@neel.cnrs.fr (nano-chemistry)
              (others)

The 1st year of the master N2 is devoted to disciplinary courses in physics, chemistry and biology providing a strong background in general science and technology, and to transverse concepts in nanosciences.
The standard curriculum of 60 ECTS is organized in 5 blocks.

In the Research Intensive curriculum, a part of elective courses is replaced by a 1st year master thesis.

General interest courses consist of  French as a Foreign Language (FLE) for non-french speaking students  (6 ECTS), or, English language (3 ECTS) and a Professional Insertion course (3 ECTS) for students fluent in french.  

The Common program in nanosciences introduces the fundamental concepts needed to understand the special properties of nano-scale systems of inert or living matter. Students are trained in various techniques of elaboration, manipulation and characterization of nano-sized objects in high-tech lab classes.  Courses are:
           Surfaces and Interfaces (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
           Nanosciences Lab (6 ETCS - 1st semester)
           Phase transitions, transport and fluctuations (6 ECTS - 2nd semester)        

Specialization courses: students prepare for their 2nd year specialization by choosing a major in nano-physics, nano-chemistry or nano-biosciences.
            Specialization courses for nanophysics:  
                      Quantum Physics (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Solid state, electrons and phonons (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Micro and Nanofluidics (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Mechanics at the micro and nanoscale (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Optical spectroscopy (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Nanophysics with local probes (3 ETCS - 2nd semester)
           Specialization courses for nanochemistry
                      Coordination and Supra-molecular chemistry (6 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Optical spectroscopy (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                      Solid state, electrons and phonons (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
                      Electron transfers: electrochemistry and molecular photophysics (6 ECTS - 2nd semester)
            Specialization courses for Nanobiosciences, students with a background in physics or engineering
                      Molecular Biology (6 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Electromagnetism (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Physics of semi-conductor devices (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Physiology and Cell Biology ( 6 ECTS - 2nd semester)
             Specialization courses for Nanobiosciences, students with a background in biology or life sciences
                       Physics of Semi-conductor devices  (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Mathematics for biology (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       Physics and electricity for biology (6 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       Physics of the colloidal domain (6 ECTS - 2nd semester)

Elective courses (15 ECTS) allow students to deepen their knowledge in their core specialization and to widen their background to other disciplines. Students choose specialization courses offered in another discipline than their major, and/or courses in the list below.

                       Numerical methods and simulations (6 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       Chemistry and physical-chemistry of polymers I (6 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Soft Matter (3 ETCS - 1st semester)
                       Physics of Living Systems (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       Introduction to sub-atomic physics (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       Thermodynamics (3 ECTS - 1st semester)
                       De la solution au solide (6 ECTS  - 1st semester)
                       Numerical simulation project (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Optics (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Molecular Biology Project (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Modelling in systems biology (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Chemistry of polymers II  (3 ETCS - 2nd semester)
                       Physico-chemistry of polymers II (3 ETCS - 2nd semester)
                       Nanostructures for optical and magnetic properties (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)
                       Research Training (3 ECTS - 2nd semester)

Research Internship in Nanosciences and nanotechnologies (6 ECTS): students pursue an internship of minimum 8 weeks between april to june, in a research institute or a company, on a subject related to nanosciences or nanotechnologies. They conduct a research project under the guidance of their supervisor. The internship can be extended during the summer up a length of 4 months.  

Courses short description:

Surfaces and interfaces - 3 ECTS

Goal: As the size of systems decreases, surface effects become more important. The nano- scale is also the scale at which surface effects dominate over bulk effects. This course introduces the main notions to adress the specific properties and the organization of matter at surfaces from a physical, chemical and biological point of view.

Content:
- notions on molecular and surface interactions. The hydrophobic effect
- thermodynamics of surfaces ; surface tension
- capillarity, wetting, contact angle
- surfactants,  micelles, self-assemblies and lyotropic phases
- Gibbs monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films
- introduction to biologic membranes

Bibliography:
J.N. Israelachvili "Molecular and Surface forces"
S. Safran "Statistical thermodyanmics of surfaces, interfaces and membranes "
A.W. Adamson "Physical-chemistry of surfaces"
de Gennes, Brochard, Quéré "Capillarity and wetting phenomena"

Quantum Physics - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: The goal of this course is to train students to master in an operational way the concepts and the techniques of quantum mechanics required to pursue advanced studies in nano-physics. The course activity will be based mainly on tutoring sessions devoted to problem-solving. Students will be assigned homework on a week-to-week basis, to review/acquire the fundamental notions in quantum mechanics on textbooks or slides, and they will be given questions and problems to prepare for the classes, in order to develop their ability in solving quantum physics problems.

Content: This course will review fundamental concepts and illustrate them by various example of quantum nanosystems:
 - angular momentum coupling, spin orbit coupling,
-  Coulomb potential, two-level quantum systems,
- Bloch sphere, Rabi oscillations
 -main approximation methods: perturbation theory, Fermi golden rules

Solid State, Electrons and Phonons - 3 ECTS
Contact:     (http://perso.neel.cnrs.fr/xavier.blase/)

Goal: This solid-state physics class aims at providing the basics theories that allow to understand the properties of materials, and in particular their electronic and vibrational properties. Why are some solids metallic and other semiconducting ? Can we calculate their specific heat ? What is their velocity of sound ? Applications to low-dimensional systems (including graphene and nanotubes) will serve as a bridge to nanosciences.

Content: 
- The historical Drude model of conductivity
- Introducing quantum mechanics : non-interacting electrons in a box
- Density of states in several dimensions
- Translational properties and Bloch theorem : reducing the complexity
- Reciprocal space and Brillouin zone
- Tight-binding approximation and band structures
- Examples : graphene, Peierls distortion, the minimal cuprate, etc.
- Phonons ; acoustic and optical modes.

Bibliography:
- Introductory chapters of a basic book on Quantum mechanics
- Introduction to Solid-State Physics, Charles Kittel
- Solid-State Physics, Ashcroft and Mermin
- Website (in construction)

Phase transitions, transport and fluctuations: from nanomaterials to biologic systems - 6 ETCS
Contact: -

Goal: To introduce the basic statistical physics and thermodynamic concepts to address the equi-ibrium and evolution properties of nano-scale systems.

Content: The course will start from a thermodynamic view of materials, justified by microscopic models. It will explore the rich physics and physical-chemistry that governs the formation of complex nanostructured materials, from metallic alloys to polymers and other self-organized soft matter systems. The extension to biological systems will provide examples  in which these notions can be extended to non-equilibrium situations.

 I. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in materials and nanomaterials
-Thermodynamics and phase diagrams
-Thermodynamics of heterogeneous systems and interfaces
-Heat and mass transport  in condensed systems
-Dynamics of phase transitions: nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition
-Notions on numerical models: particle based models, PDEs
-Elements of stochastic thermodynamics

II. Biological matter: A statistical view of biological dynamics
-Application of random walks in Biology , Fick's law, solutions to the Diffusion equation (Frap, FCS), Rate equations (diffusion limited versus reaction limited regime), single molecule experiments on Biopolymers and Biomolecules (DNA, actin, ligand-receptor binding etc...).
-Two-state systems and cooperativity.
- Dynamics of molecular motors (rectified Brownian motion, polymerization Ratchets)
- Physics for the cell architecture and skeletons (beam theory, membrane mechanics, thermal fluctuations and mechanics, persistence length)
- Life at low Reynolds number

Micro- and nanofluidics - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Microfluidics studies the transport of liquids at the scale of some micrometer to the hundred of micrometer, such as the flow of red blood cells in a blood vessel, the transport of polymer chains in a porous medium, or the locomotion of micro-organisms. Nanofluidics studies the flow of liquids at the colloidal scale, that is at distance of the nanometer to the micrometer from a surface. This course introduces the concepts of low Reynolds number flows and surface-driven flows and describes the main properties of flows and transport at the sub-millimeter scale.

Content:
- Simple deformations, definition of viscosity
- Lubrication flows ; applications
- Stokes equations ; general properties of low Reynolds number flows
- Diffusion and mixing ; hydrodynamic dispersion ; Peclet number
- Capillary flows ; moving contact lines
- Surface driven flows and coupled transport: Marangoni flows ; electro-osmosis ; Helmoltz-Shmolukovski velocity
Exercise session:
Viscous flow around a sphere ; Oseen tensor ; notions on locomotion at low Re

Bibliography:
Guyon, Hulin, Petit "Physical Hydrodynamics"
de Gennes, Brochard, Quéré "Bubbles, drops, pearls and waves"
Tabeling "Introduction to microfluidics"

Molecular Biology - 6 ECTS
Contact:    See also here

Goal: The course presents the fundamental properties of nucleic acids and proteins. It conveys basic knowledge about biologically active molecules, their properties and their function. An introduction to bioinformatics is provided.
Practicals are intended to illustrate the theoretical knowledge on DNA and proteins with biochemical experiments. They provide hands-on work with the basic techniques in molecular genetics and protein biochemistry. See here

Content.   Different topics will be discussed :
- Structure and function of proteins
- Nucleic acids and the genetic code
- Regulation of gene expression
- Introduction to enzymology
- Molecular biology techniques to analyse and modify nucleic acids and proteins
The introduction to bioinformatics gives insight into:
- Protein 3D structure and genome analysis<o:p> as well as primer design.

The practicals are organized in 5 sessions during wich a gene and its corresponding protein are analyzed.
The DNA sessions are focused on: plasmid DNA purification using alcaline lysis ; quantification of DNA ; sequence-specific DNA amplification using PCR ; restriction analysis.
The Protein sessions are focused on: expression of a recombinant protein in E coli ; protein purification using affinity chromatography ; protein quantification (Bradford) ; SDS PAGE analysis and Western blot ; quantification using ELISA.

Bibliography: Biochemistry : International edition : Jeremy M. Berg (Auteur) , John L. Tymoczko (Auteur) , Lubert Stryer (Auteur)

Numerical methods and simulations - 6 ECTS
Contact: Jean-Marc Dedulle     See also here

Goal:   Learn the most important numerical methods to solve ordinary differential equation and partial derivative equations in order to model physical phenomenon.

Content
- Course presentation - An introduction to modelling - DNA hybridation project. Learn basic programming with Matlab®. Lab session : 12H00.
- Resolution of ordinary differential equations. Runge-Kutta methods. Lecture: 2H00 - Problem session: 2H00 - Lab session: 4H00.
- Numerical integration: Newton-cotes - Gauss. Polynomial interpolation. Lecture: 2H00 - Problem session: 2H00 - Lab session: 4H00.
- Linear system resolution (directs and iteratives methods) and non linear. Lecture: 2H00 - Lab session: 2H00.
- Finite differences method: implicit / explicit scheme. Von Neumann stability. Lecture: 2H00 - Problem session: 2H00 - Lab session: 8H00.
- Finite elements method: nodal / edge. Lecture: 4H00 - Problem session: 4H00 - Lab session: 8H00.

Bibliography
P. Lascaux & R. Theodor : "Analyse numérique appliquée à l'art de l'ingénieur", Edition Masson, 2 tomes
G. Dhatt & G. Touzot : "Une présentation de la méthode des éléments finis", Edition Maloine S.A., 2ème édition 1984
B. Lucquin & O. Pironneau: "Introduction au calcul scientifique", Edition Masson, 1996

Mechanics at the micro- and nanoscale - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal:  Mechanics plays a forefront role at the nanoscale,  from the generation of nano-structures by growth instabilities to the properties of nano-composite materials, the design of micro and nano-mechanical devices, the nano-imaging techniques, the control of biologic functions.  This course introduces the mechanics of continuous media and its main applications to nanosciences and nano-technologies.  

Content:
- Simple deformations, definition of elastic modulii E, G, K, nu
- Flexion of beams, static, dynamics and waves. Example: the AFM cantilever.
- 3D linear elasticity of isotropic media: strain tensor ;  elasticity as a field theory (expression of the free energy) ; stress tensor ; general equilibrium equation
- elastic instabilities in thin films
- elasticity of membranes, ADN coil.

Bibliography
Landau & Lifschitz "Theory of elasticity"

Molecular biology project - 3 ECTS
Contact Franz BRUCKERT, Marianne WEIDENHAUPT-BLACKLEDGE

Goal: Learning by doing in molecular biology or biochemistry. Project organization

Content: Innovative project in biology or biotechnology. The subject will be defined in collaboration with an external laboratory or a biotechnological company. The experimental work can be done by a small team.
The subject and a short bibliography will be done initially. The students will then have free access to the biology lab at the CIME facility. Experimental work will be performed in the presence of scientists or technicians. Experiments will be recorded in a notebook. Every week, the team will meet the biologist staff.

See also here

Modelling in systems biology - 3 ECTS
Contact: See also here

Goal : The course provides an introduction to systems biology by focusing on the behaviors emerging from interactions between genes, proteins and RNAs, taking examples from microbes to mammals. The main goal of this course is to show students that abstract computational and mathematical methods can be effectively employed for in silico modeling and analysis of living organisms. Moreover, to enhance practical skills, students will apply some of the techniques and software tools to analyze genome-scale models and models of cell metabolism and gene expression.

Content: Introduction to cellular networks and mathematical modelling (course: 2h)
Mathematical modelling of cell metabolism: flux balance analysis (course: 2 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)
Kinetic models of integrated networks and introduction to other modelling frameworks (4 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)
Identification and inference of metabolic network models (2 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)

Optics - 3 ECTS
Contact:     See also here

Goals: To give tools and methods for the analysis and design of optical systems. To give the basic knowledge on the optical aberration encountered in optical systems.

Content:
Geometrical optics: Foundations and fondamental law. Approached and rigorous stigmatims. Spherical dioptre and its gaussian approximation. Cardinal points of centered optical systems.
Complex optical systems and their defects : the eye example ; characteristics of an optical instrument; chromatic aberration ; geometrical aberrations.
Optical cavities and mirrors : spherical mirror andits gaussian approximation ; optical cavities.

Numerical simulations project - 3 ECTS
Contact: Jean-Marc Dedulle      See also here

Goals: Learn modelling of physical phenomenon. Increase one's knowledge of numerical method to compute partial derivative equations and ordinary derivative equations. Use industrial software for scientific computation.

Content:  The students use and modify Pedagogic Matlab programs and industrial software for scientific computation. The student work by group of 2 to 3 students by 4h sessions.
 Different modelling projects are proposed: DNA biochip ; MEMS contactor ; Halbach cylinder ; Deep brain stimulation ; Magnto-hydrodynamic and moving fluids.

Electronics for measurement systems - 3 ECTS
Contact:    See also here

Goal: All electronic systems interacting with the real world include sensors and/or actuators.
This course is meant to provide an introduction to the analog electronic processing of the signal provided by a sensor. A complete system will be studied, from the sensor to the analog to digital converter.

Content:
1. Introduction
2. Elements on sensors
3. Amplification
4. Fundamentals of filters
5. Noise analysis of O.A.-based circuits
Exercises sessions
1.Instrumentation amplifier with 2 operational amplifiers (temperature measurement)
2.Error budget in a circuit with an instrumentation amplifier
3.Application of GIC to filters
4.Analog to digital conversion: synthesis of a anti-aliasing filter
5.Noise figure of an operational amplifier based circuit
6.Discussion of a previous exam

Prerequisites: Knowledge of basic analog electronic circuits analysis techniques. Use of operational amplifiers. Elements of analog signal processing. Theory of sampling techniques

Bibliography:
G. Asch et collaborateurs: "Acquisition de données", ed. Dunod
Horowitz & Hill: "The Art of Electronics" Cambridge University Press
G. Asch et collaborateurs : "Capteurs" ed. Dunod
S. Franco "Design with operational amplifiers and analog integrated circuits", 3ème édition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002

Physics of semi-conductors and semi-conductors devices - 3 ECTS

Contact:    See also here

Goal: To introduce the physical phenomena which appear in semiconductor materials and are used in microelectronic sensors or devices.  To understand the physics and operation of basic semiconductor devices: PN junctions, metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, MOS transistors.

Content : Physical and electrical conducting properties of semiconductors.
• Semiconductor elementary properties at equilibrium: structures, energy bands, electron and hole, doping
•Poisson equation and consequences (Space Charge Region, potential barrier or well)
•Weak perturbations of equilibrium: charge transport (conduction, carrier mobility, diffusion, Hall effect)
•Strong perturbations of equilibrium (carrier generation and recombination)
Principle of operation and electrical characteristics of basic semiconductor devices:
•PN junctions
•MOS capacitors and transistors
Prerequisites - Basics of : Quantum Physics, Statistical Physics, Solid-State Physics (electronic properties, energy bands, charge carriers)

Bibliography

A. Vapaille et R. Castagné : Dispositifs et circuits intégrés (Dunod, 1987)
H. Mathieu : Physique des semiconducteurs et des composants électroniques (Dunod, 2004)
G. Streetman and S. Banerjee : Solid-state Electronic Devices (6th Ed., Prentice Hall,2005)
S.M. Sze : Semiconductor devices: Physics and Technology (2nd Ed., J. Wiley, 2002).

Optical Spectroscopy - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Optical spectroscopy concerns itself with the interaction between light and matter. In this lecture we present a theoretical framework to discuss the absorption, emission, and luminescence properties of atomic and molecular systems. Experimental techniques will be discussed, including modern and state-of-the-art techniques used in the environmental (e.g., infrared trace gas detection) and life sciences (such as Raman non-linear spectroscopies).

Chapter 1-2 (Light, A Short History)
Chapter 3 (Interaction of EM Radiation with Atoms and Molecules)
Chapter 4 (Infrared Molecular Spectroscopy)
Chapter 5 (Raman Spectroscopy)
Chapter 6 (Electronic Spectroscopy)
Chapter 7 (Photoelectron Spectroscopy)
Chapter 8 (Laser Induced Fluorescence)
Chapter 9 (Solid State Spectroscopy)
Chapter 10 (Detection Techniques)
Chapter 11 (Frequency Comb Spectroscopy)

Soft Matter - 3 ECTS

Contact:

Matter cohesion (Van der Waals forces). 3 media model (without interfacial energy). Hydrophily/hydrophoby. Hamaker constant. Interaction between charged surfaces in water. Debye length. Polymers, colloids. Surface tension and wetting. Analyses and review articles.

Physiology and cell biology - 3 ECTS

Physiology : the course provides an overview of the pathways by which metabolic substrates are absorbed, stored, and used by the human organism in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Following an introduction regarding macromolecules composing living systems and the main biochemical reactions involved in energy production, the physiology of the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle will be described as well as their roles in bioenergetics. Physiological (exercise) and pathophysiological (type I and II diabetes) variations of bioenergetic metabolism will then be studied in details. Finally, cardiovascular physiology will be described as well as the main pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases.

Cell biology : using illustrating examples, lectures will explain the dynamical organization of living cells, explore different techniques used to study cell functions and show the complementarity between experimental approaches and different scales.

  • Lectures
    • Membrane and cell compartments
    • Cell energetics
    • Cytoskeleton dynamics
    • Membrane traffic
    • DNA replication, repair and recombination
  • Studies : Scientific article analysis
    • Molecular techniques for cell study: fluorescent protein expression, mutants and genetic screens, purification of intracellular compartments, in vitro reconstitution, in vivo protein interactio, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence
    • Practicals : the student learns eucaryote cell culture techniques. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods to evaluate cellular function are taught.

Prerequisites: a background in cellular biology might facilitate the assimilation of the 1st part of the course

Physics of Living Matter - 3 ETCS

Introduction to structural biology, Introduction to different electron microscopy (EM) techniques to study cells (TEM/SEM) and sample preparation, X-ray scattering by macromolecules, Macromolecular crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance principles and key steps for structure determination of biomacromolecules

Chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers (I) - 6 ECTS
Contact:

Goal : Acquire knowledge concerning the methods of macromolecular synthesis and the characteriza-tion of polymers (structure and average molecular mass). The lecture part is dealing on one hand with the chemistry of polymers, and on the other hand with the study of  the physical chemistry of polymers. The discussion section part includes exercises on the following topics in  particular: average molecular masses, polycondensation, free-radical polymerization processes and biopolymers. These exercises allow strengthening the knowledge on these topics.

Content:
I. Part "Chemistry of Polymers" (11h Lectures – 4.5h Discussion sections):
1. Introduction: definitions, brief history, economical aspects, terminology, technical/economical classification, general features of polymers,    molecular structure (stereoregularity, tacticity), state domains.
2. Biopolymers
            Introduction (conformational aspects).
            Outline of the different families of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, polysaccharides and other biopolymers).
3. Synthetic polymers. 
            Introduction ;  classification of polymerization reactions.
            Stepwise polymerization reactions:
            General features. 
            Main reactions used in stepwise polymerization processes.
            Kinetic aspects of stepwise polymerizations.
            Chain polymerization reactions.
            Reaction scheme. Initiation and propagation. Termination.
            Kinetic aspects of chain polymerizations.
            Polymerization processes. Controlled free-radical polymerization. Insertion polymerizations
4. Synthesis of thermosetting polymers and of elastomers

II. Part "Physical chemistry of Polymers" (11h Lectures – 7.5h Discussion sections):
1. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties in solution:

  •             Viscosimetry, osmometry
  •             Light Diffusion
  •             GPC, thermodynamics and chain dimensions

2. Gels: Polymer gels

Prerequisites: General chemistry (batchelor program)

Chemistry of Polymers II - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: To give knoledge on the elaboration of polymers with controlled architecture (living polymerization, copolymer synthesis), on chemical modifications of polymers, on degradation and recycling.

Content: 19h Lectures + 6h Discussion sections
General introduction on polymers. Definitions, reminders on macromolecular syntheses
I.  Polymers with controlled architecture: synthesis and properties
     Statistical copolymerization
     Synthesis of block and graft copolymers, either by living of by controlled free-radical polymerizations
     Synthesis of dendrimers
    Development of 'intelligent' polymer materials
II. Chemical modifications of polymers. Obtention of functional biopolymers or synthetic polymers via 'click-chemistry' processes<
III. Biosourced polymers. Different classes ; synthesis, properties and applications
IV. Supramolecular polymers. Development strategies ; properties and applications
V. Application of NMR spectroscopy to the characterization of polymers.

Physical-Chemistry of Polymers  - 3 ECTS
Contact:

Goal: Give notions on configurational and conformational analysis of polymer chains ; self-organization of polymers at the solid state (amorphous state and glass transition, crystalline and semi-crystalline states) ;  general thermomechanical behaviour and methods for the elaboration of polymers and polymer-forming.

Content: 19h Lectures + 6h Discussion sections
 I. Amorphous polymers (7h)
   - Introduction to mechanical testing and reminders on the different state domains. Dynamic mechanical analysis ;  thermomechanical behaviour ; viscoelastic phenomenons: Maxwell models and Voigt model
   - The glass transition: highlighting from the variation of the specific volume with temperature ; highlighting by DSC
   - Molecular origin of the glass transition
   -  Influence of the chemical structure of polymers on the temperature of glass transition
   Discussion section 1: Mechanical models
   Discussion section 2: Dynamic mechanical analysis
II. Semi-crystalline polymers (3h)
   - Crystalline structures of mass polymers. Crystal lamella ; spherulites
   - Measurement of the crystallinity ratio. X-Ray diffraction ; density measurements ; DSC
   - Melting point of crystalline domains. Influence of the chemical structure of polymers.
   - Crystallisation kinetics
Discussion section 3: Cristallinity measurement
III. Rubber elasticity (4h): the phenomenon, the theory.
    Discussion section 4: Measurements of Young's modulus and critical mass of a polymer
IV. Elaboration of polymers and polymer-forming (1.5h)
- Molding, extrusion techniques…
- Spinning techniques (obtention of fibers used in the textile industry and in the biomedical field, (manufacturing surgical materials).
V. Colloids and dispersions (4.5h): Generalities on colloids; applications of polymers to the stabilisation of colloidal suspensions

Thermodynamics (3 ECTS)
Content: 10h Lectures, 6h Tutorials
Goal: Understanding and mastering of thermodynamics as a basis for stability studies and evolution conditions of physical and chemical systems.
Calculation of thermal balances (quantification of heat exchange for a reaction) in
association with a chemical process.
Study of equilibrium: forecast of equilibrium composition for a reactive mixture.
Prediction of the evolution of the system and determination of conditions for chemical
transformations.
Concepts applications to examples and phenomena of biological interest.

Introduction to sub-atomic physics - 3 ECTS
Contact:
Goal: Acquire a basic knowledge of the composition of atomic nuclei, models to describe them, fundamental forces, interactions and special relativity.
Content : 8h Lectures and 4h Tutorials
- Introduction : particles, forces, nucleus, unities
- Radioactive decay
- History of nuclear physics : Rutherford experimentation
- Interactions probabilities, cross sections
- Nucleus models : liquid drop and nuclear shell models
- Special relativity

Bibliography:

  • P.E. Hodgson, "Introductory nuclear physics", Oxford University Press, 1997
  • K. Heyde, "Basic ideas and concepts in nuclear physics - An introductory approach", IOP Publishing Ltd, 1999
  • Kenneth S. Krane, "Introductory nuclear physics", John Wiley &amp; sons, 1988
  • N.A., Jelley, "Fundamentals of nuclear physics", Cambridge University Press, 1990
  • W.S.C. Williams, "Nuclear and particle physics", Clarendon Press, 1996
  • L. Valentin, "Physique subatomique - Noyaux et particules", (2 tomes), Hermann, 1982
  • D. Blanc, "Eléments de physique nucléaire", Masson, 1960

Research Training - 3 ECTS
Goal: Immerse students in a research team of the Grenoble area in Nanosiences and Nanotechnologies.
Students spend 10 days in a research team and perform a research project under the supervision of a professor. They get a first contact with the Grenoble research environment in nanosciences and nanotechnologies.