First year programme
Contacts: email@example.com (nano-chemistry)
The 1st year of the master N2 is organized in 2 semesters of 30 credits each.
1st semester 30 ects
2nd semester 30 ects
|Common courses 12 ects||Common courses 15 ects|
|Professional Insertion (3 ects)
Surfaces & Interfaces (3 ects)
Phase transition and transport (3 ects)
Practicals (3 ects)
|Foreign language (3 ects)
Nanosciences (6 ects)
Research Internship (6 ects)
|Program courses 9 to 12 ects||Program courses 6 to 9 ects|
Nanophysics 9 ects
| Nanophysics 6 ects
Nanophysics with local probes (3 ects)
Mechanics at the micro and nanoscale (3 ects)
Nanochemistry 9 ects
Electrochemistry & molecular photophysics (6 ects)
Optical and magnetic spectroscopies (3 ects)
Nanobiosciences 9 ects
Physics of the colloidal scale (6 ects)
Optical and magnetic spectroscopies (3 ects)
Elective courses 6 to 9 ects
Elective courses 6 to 9 ects
In the Research Intensive curriculum, a part of elective courses is replaced by a 1st year master thesis.
Common courses are taken by all students. Non french-speaking students take a first course of French as a Foreign Language (FLE) as Professional Insertion (3 credits 1st semester) and a second course of FLE as the Foerign Language course of the 2nd semester. For french speaking students, the Foreign Language course is english, or another language or transverse course if they are proficient in english.
The other common courses are a common program in nanosciences, introducing the fundamental concepts as well as various techniques of elaboration, manipulation and characterization of nano-sized objects in high-tech lab classes.
Program courses depend on the background of students. They prepare them for their 2nd year specialization by choosing a major in nano-physics, nano-chemistry or nano-biosciences.
Elective courses allow students to deepen their knowledge in their core specialization and to widen their background to other disciplines. Students can choose:
- courses in another program than theirs
- courses in the list below.
Scientific softwares (3 ECTS)
Image and signal processing (3 ECTS)
Optical spectroscopy (3 ECTS)
Electromagnetism (3 ECTS)
Introduction to sub-atomic physics (3 ECTS)
Chemistry and physical-chemistry of polymers I (6 ETCS )
Soft Matter (3 ETCS)
Physics of biological Systems (3 ECTS)
Molecular biology (3 ECTS)
Current trends in nanosciences (3 ECTS)
Semi-conductors (3 ECTS)
Magnetism and nanosciences (3 ECTS)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (3 ECTS)
Molecular Photophysics (3 ECTS)
Electrochemistry (3 ECTS)
Molecular Biology Project (3 ECTS)
Physiology and cell biology (6 ECTS)
Modelling in systems biology (3 ECTS)
Chemistry of polymers II (3 ETCS)
Physico-chemistry of polymers II (3 ETCS)
Research Training (3 ECTS)
Research Internship in Nanosciences and nanotechnologies (6 ECTS): students pursue an internship of minimum 8 weeks between april to june, in a research institute or a company, on a subject related to nanosciences or nanotechnologies. They conduct a research project under the guidance of their supervisor. The internship can be extended during the summer up a length of 4 months.
Courses short description:
Goal: As the size of systems decreases, surface effects become more important. The nano- scale is also the scale at which surface effects dominate over bulk effects. This course introduces the main notions to adress the specific properties and the organization of matter at surfaces from a physical, chemical and biological point of view.
- notions on molecular and surface interactions. The hydrophobic effect
- thermodynamics of surfaces ; surface tension
- capillarity, wetting, contact angle
- surfactants, micelles, self-assemblies and lyotropic phases
- Gibbs monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films
- introduction to biologic membranes
J.N. Israelachvili "Molecular and Surface forces"
S. Safran "Statistical thermodyanmics of surfaces, interfaces and membranes "
A.W. Adamson "Physical-chemistry of surfaces"
de Gennes, Brochard, Quéré "Capillarity and wetting phenomena"
Quantum Physics - 3 ECTS
Goal: The goal of this course is to train students to master in an operational way the concepts and the techniques of quantum mechanics required to pursue advanced studies in nano-physics. The course activity will be based mainly on tutoring sessions devoted to problem-solving. Students will be assigned homework on a week-to-week basis, to review/acquire the fundamental notions in quantum mechanics on textbooks or slides, and they will be given questions and problems to prepare for the classes, in order to develop their ability in solving quantum physics problems.
Content: This course will review fundamental concepts and illustrate them by various example of quantum nanosystems:
- angular momentum coupling, spin orbit coupling,
- Coulomb potential, two-level quantum systems,
- Bloch sphere, Rabi oscillations
-main approximation methods: perturbation theory, Fermi golden rules
Solid State, Electrons and Phonons - 3 ECTS
Goal: This solid-state physics class aims at providing the basics theories that allow to understand the properties of materials, and in particular their electronic and vibrational properties. Why are some solids metallic and other semiconducting ? Can we calculate their specific heat ? What is their velocity of sound ? Applications to low-dimensional systems (including graphene and nanotubes) will serve as a bridge to nanosciences.
- The historical Drude model of conductivity
- Introducing quantum mechanics : non-interacting electrons in a box
- Density of states in several dimensions
- Translational properties and Bloch theorem : reducing the complexity
- Reciprocal space and Brillouin zone
- Tight-binding approximation and band structures
- Examples : graphene, Peierls distortion, the minimal cuprate, etc.
- Phonons ; acoustic and optical modes.
- Introductory chapters of a basic book on Quantum mechanics
- Introduction to Solid-State Physics, Charles Kittel
- Solid-State Physics, Ashcroft and Mermin
- Website (in construction)
Goal: To introduce the basic statistical physics and thermodynamic concepts to address the equi-ibrium and evolution properties of nano-scale systems.
Content: The course will start from a thermodynamic view of materials, justified by microscopic models. It will explore the rich physics and physical-chemistry that governs the formation of complex nanostructured materials, from metallic alloys to polymers and other self-organized soft matter systems. The extension to biological systems will provide examples in which these notions can be extended to non-equilibrium situations.
- Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in materials and nanomaterials
-Thermodynamics and phase diagrams
-Thermodynamics of heterogeneous systems and interfaces
-Heat and mass transport in condensed systems
-Dynamics of phase transitions: nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition
-Notions on numerical models: particle based models, PDEs
-Elements of stochastic thermodynamics
Goal: Microfluidics studies the transport of liquids at the scale of some micrometer to the hundred of micrometer, such as the flow of red blood cells in a blood vessel, the transport of polymer chains in a porous medium, or the locomotion of micro-organisms. Nanofluidics studies the flow of liquids at the colloidal scale, that is at distance of the nanometer to the micrometer from a surface. This course introduces the concepts of low Reynolds number flows and surface-driven flows and describes the main properties of flows and transport at the sub-millimeter scale.
- Simple deformations, definition of viscosity
- Lubrication flows ; applications
- Stokes equations ; general properties of low Reynolds number flows
- Diffusion and mixing ; hydrodynamic dispersion ; Peclet number
- Capillary flows ; moving contact lines
- Surface driven flows and coupled transport: Marangoni flows ; electro-osmosis ; Helmoltz-Shmolukovski velocity
Viscous flow around a sphere ; Oseen tensor ; notions on locomotion at low Re
Guyon, Hulin, Petit "Physical Hydrodynamics"
de Gennes, Brochard, Quéré "Bubbles, drops, pearls and waves"
Tabeling "Introduction to microfluidics"
Electromagnetism - 3 ECTS
Contact: See also here
Goal: Understand and solve the electromagnetic wave equations (Maxwell) for various systems (vacuum, dielectrics, conductors and their association). Understand the basic concepts of spectroscopy due to the interaction photon-matter.
Part I: Basic concepts of electromagnetic waves
Parameters of media
EM Wave equation
Interface phenomena (R, T)
Multilayers waveguide (metal/dielectric)
Part II: Spectroscopy and Electric Phenomena at the interfaces
Elastic light scattering (Rayleigh scattering)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)
Florescence Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET)
P. Combes Microndes, Dunod (1983)
D. Pozar "Microwave Engineering" Wiley (2012)
E. Le Ru, P. Etchegoin "Principles of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and realted plasmonic effects" Elsevier (2008)
Molecular Biology - 6 ECTS
Contact: See also here
Goal: The course presents the fundamental properties of nucleic acids and proteins. It conveys basic knowledge about biologically active molecules, their properties and their function. An introduction to bioinformatics is provided.
Practicals are intended to illustrate the theoretical knowledge on DNA and proteins with biochemical experiments. They provide hands-on work with the basic techniques in molecular genetics and protein biochemistry. See here
Content. Different topics will be discussed :
- Structure and function of proteins
- Nucleic acids and the genetic code
- Regulation of gene expression
- Introduction to enzymology
- Molecular biology techniques to analyse and modify nucleic acids and proteins
The introduction to bioinformatics gives insight into:
- Protein 3D structure and genome analysis<o:p> as well as primer design.
The practicals are organized in 5 sessions during wich a gene and its corresponding protein are analyzed.
The DNA sessions are focused on: plasmid DNA purification using alcaline lysis ; quantification of DNA ; sequence-specific DNA amplification using PCR ; restriction analysis.
The Protein sessions are focused on: expression of a recombinant protein in E coli ; protein purification using affinity chromatography ; protein quantification (Bradford) ; SDS PAGE analysis and Western blot ; quantification using ELISA.
Bibliography: Biochemistry : International edition : Jeremy M. Berg (Auteur) , John L. Tymoczko (Auteur) , Lubert Stryer (Auteur)
Goal: Introduction and practice of numerical methods on Matlab®.
- Course presentation - An introduction to modelling - Learn basic programming with Matlab®. Lab session : 12H00.
- Resolution of ordinary differential equations. Runge-Kutta methods. - Lab session: 4H00.
- Numerical integration: Newton-cotes - Gauss. Polynomial interpolation. - Lab session: 4H00.
- Linear system resolution (directs and iteratives methods) and non linear. Lab session: 8H00.
P. Lascaux & R. Theodor : "Analyse numérique appliquée à l'art de l'ingénieur", Edition Masson, 2 tomes
G. Dhatt & G. Touzot : "Une présentation de la méthode des éléments finis", Edition Maloine S.A., 2ème édition 1984
B. Lucquin & O. Pironneau: "Introduction au calcul scientifique", Edition Masson, 1996
Goal: Mechanics plays a forefront role at the nanoscale, from the generation of nano-structures by growth instabilities to the properties of nano-composite materials, the design of micro and nano-mechanical devices, the nano-imaging techniques, the control of biologic functions. This course introduces the mechanics of continuous media and its main applications to nanosciences and nano-technologies.
- Simple deformations, definition of elastic modulii E, G, K, nu
- Flexion of beams, static, dynamics and waves. Example: the AFM cantilever.
- 3D linear elasticity of isotropic media: strain tensor ; elasticity as a field theory (expression of the free energy) ; stress tensor ; general equilibrium equation
- elastic instabilities in thin films
- elasticity of membranes, ADN coil.
Landau & Lifschitz "Theory of elasticity"
Goal: Learning by doing in molecular biology or biochemistry. Project organization
Content: Innovative project in biology or biotechnology. The subject will be defined in collaboration with an external laboratory or a biotechnological company. The experimental work can be done by a small team.
The subject and a short bibliography will be done initially. The students will then have free access to the biology lab at the CIME facility. Experimental work will be performed in the presence of scientists or technicians. Experiments will be recorded in a notebook. Every week, the team will meet the biologist staff.
See also here
Modelling in systems biology - 3 ECTS
Contact: See also here
Goal : The course provides an introduction to systems biology by focusing on the behaviors emerging from interactions between genes, proteins and RNAs, taking examples from microbes to mammals. The main goal of this course is to show students that abstract computational and mathematical methods can be effectively employed for in silico modeling and analysis of living organisms. Moreover, to enhance practical skills, students will apply some of the techniques and software tools to analyze genome-scale models and models of cell metabolism and gene expression.
Content: Introduction to cellular networks and mathematical modelling (course: 2h)
Mathematical modelling of cell metabolism: flux balance analysis (course: 2 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)
Kinetic models of integrated networks and introduction to other modelling frameworks (4 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)
Identification and inference of metabolic network models (2 hours + 2 hours computer lab exercises)
Electronics for measurement systems - 3 ECTS
Contact: See also here
Goal: All electronic systems interacting with the real world include sensors and/or actuators.
This course is meant to provide an introduction to the analog electronic processing of the signal provided by a sensor. A complete system will be studied, from the sensor to the analog to digital converter.
2. Elements on sensors
4. Fundamentals of filters
5. Noise analysis of O.A.-based circuits
1.Instrumentation amplifier with 2 operational amplifiers (temperature measurement)
2.Error budget in a circuit with an instrumentation amplifier
3.Application of GIC to filters
4.Analog to digital conversion: synthesis of a anti-aliasing filter
5.Noise figure of an operational amplifier based circuit
6.Discussion of a previous exam
Prerequisites: Knowledge of basic analog electronic circuits analysis techniques. Use of operational amplifiers. Elements of analog signal processing. Theory of sampling techniques
G. Asch et collaborateurs: "Acquisition de données", ed. Dunod
Horowitz & Hill: "The Art of Electronics" Cambridge University Press
G. Asch et collaborateurs : "Capteurs" ed. Dunod
S. Franco "Design with operational amplifiers and analog integrated circuits", 3ème édition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002
Goal: To introduce the physical phenomena which appear in semiconductor materials and are used in microelectronic sensors or devices. To understand the physics and operation of basic semiconductor devices: PN junctions, metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, MOS transistors.
Content : Physical and electrical conducting properties of semiconductors.
• Semiconductor elementary properties at equilibrium: structures, energy bands, electron and hole, doping
•Poisson equation and consequences (Space Charge Region, potential barrier or well)
•Weak perturbations of equilibrium: charge transport (conduction, carrier mobility, diffusion, Hall effect)
•Strong perturbations of equilibrium (carrier generation and recombination)
Principle of operation and electrical characteristics of basic semiconductor devices:
•MOS capacitors and transistors
Prerequisites - Basics of : Quantum Physics, Statistical Physics, Solid-State Physics (electronic properties, energy bands, charge carriers)
A. Vapaille et R. Castagné : Dispositifs et circuits intégrés (Dunod, 1987)
H. Mathieu : Physique des semiconducteurs et des composants électroniques (Dunod, 2004)
G. Streetman and S. Banerjee : Solid-state Electronic Devices (6th Ed., Prentice Hall,2005)
S.M. Sze : Semiconductor devices: Physics and Technology (2nd Ed., J. Wiley, 2002).
Optical spectroscopy concerns itself with the interaction between light and matter. In this lecture we present a theoretical framework to discuss the absorption, emission, and luminescence properties of atomic and molecular systems. Experimental techniques will be discussed, including modern and state-of-the-art techniques used in the environmental (e.g., infrared trace gas detection) and life sciences (such as Raman non-linear spectroscopies).
Chapter 1-2 (Light, A Short History)
Chapter 3 (Interaction of EM Radiation with Atoms and Molecules)
Chapter 4 (Infrared Molecular Spectroscopy)
Chapter 5 (Raman Spectroscopy)
Chapter 6 (Electronic Spectroscopy)
Chapter 7 (Photoelectron Spectroscopy)
Chapter 8 (Laser Induced Fluorescence)
Chapter 9 (Solid State Spectroscopy)
Chapter 10 (Detection Techniques)
Chapter 11 (Frequency Comb Spectroscopy)
Soft Matter - 3 ECTS
Matter cohesion (Van der Waals forces). 3 media model (without interfacial energy). Hydrophily/hydrophoby. Hamaker constant. Interaction between charged surfaces in water. Debye length. Polymers, colloids. Surface tension and wetting. Analyses and review articles.
Physiology and cell biology - 3 ECTS
Physiology : the course provides an overview of the pathways by which metabolic substrates are absorbed, stored, and used by the human organism in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Following an introduction regarding macromolecules composing living systems and the main biochemical reactions involved in energy production, the physiology of the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle will be described as well as their roles in bioenergetics. Physiological (exercise) and pathophysiological (type I and II diabetes) variations of bioenergetic metabolism will then be studied in details. Finally, cardiovascular physiology will be described as well as the main pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases.
Cell biology : using illustrating examples, lectures will explain the dynamical organization of living cells, explore different techniques used to study cell functions and show the complementarity between experimental approaches and different scales.
- Membrane and cell compartments
- Cell energetics
- Cytoskeleton dynamics
- Membrane traffic
- DNA replication, repair and recombination
- Studies : Scientific article analysis
- Molecular techniques for cell study: fluorescent protein expression, mutants and genetic screens, purification of intracellular compartments, in vitro reconstitution, in vivo protein interactio, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence
- Practicals : the student learns eucaryote cell culture techniques. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods to evaluate cellular function are taught.
Prerequisites: a background in cellular biology might facilitate the assimilation of the 1st part of the course
Physics of Biological systems - 3 ETCS
Introduction to biology (components and structure of the cells, genetic information, metabolism, regulation of gene expression), stochastic processes and diffusion in biological systems (with applications in population mobility patterns or in molecular motor processes), introduction to evolution (historical perspectives, the modern synthesis, genetic drifts), genetic circuits (transcription regulation, genetic logic gates, oscillatory or bistable circuits, synthetic biology), optimality in biological systems (evolution of genetic circuits, cost-benefit issues, game theory in evolving biological systems).
After each chapter, the newly introduced concepts will be illustrated through the analysis and discussion of scientific articles, either by the teacher or by the students. Each student will be required to present at least one article to the group during the overall lectures.
Goal : Acquire knowledge concerning the methods of macromolecular synthesis and the characteriza-tion of polymers (structure and average molecular mass). The lecture part is dealing on one hand with the chemistry of polymers, and on the other hand with the study of the physical chemistry of polymers. The discussion section part includes exercises on the following topics in particular: average molecular masses, polycondensation, free-radical polymerization processes and biopolymers. These exercises allow strengthening the knowledge on these topics.
I. Part "Chemistry of Polymers" (11h Lectures – 4.5h Discussion sections):
1. Introduction: definitions, brief history, economical aspects, terminology, technical/economical classification, general features of polymers, molecular structure (stereoregularity, tacticity), state domains.
Introduction (conformational aspects).
Outline of the different families of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, polysaccharides and other biopolymers).
3. Synthetic polymers.
Introduction ; classification of polymerization reactions.
Stepwise polymerization reactions:
Main reactions used in stepwise polymerization processes.
Kinetic aspects of stepwise polymerizations.
Chain polymerization reactions.
Reaction scheme. Initiation and propagation. Termination.
Kinetic aspects of chain polymerizations.
Polymerization processes. Controlled free-radical polymerization. Insertion polymerizations
4. Synthesis of thermosetting polymers and of elastomers
II. Part "Physical chemistry of Polymers" (11h Lectures – 7.5h Discussion sections):
1. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties in solution:
- Viscosimetry, osmometry
- Light Diffusion
- GPC, thermodynamics and chain dimensions
2. Gels: Polymer gels
Prerequisites: General chemistry (batchelor program)
Goal: To give knoledge on the elaboration of polymers with controlled architecture (living polymerization, copolymer synthesis), on chemical modifications of polymers, on degradation and recycling.
Content: 19h Lectures + 6h Discussion sections
General introduction on polymers. Definitions, reminders on macromolecular syntheses
I. Polymers with controlled architecture: synthesis and properties
Synthesis of block and graft copolymers, either by living of by controlled free-radical polymerizations
Synthesis of dendrimers
Development of 'intelligent' polymer materials
II. Chemical modifications of polymers. Obtention of functional biopolymers or synthetic polymers via 'click-chemistry' processes<
III. Biosourced polymers. Different classes ; synthesis, properties and applications
IV. Supramolecular polymers. Development strategies ; properties and applications
V. Application of NMR spectroscopy to the characterization of polymers.
Physical-Chemistry of Polymers - 3 ECTS
Goal: Give notions on configurational and conformational analysis of polymer chains ; self-organization of polymers at the solid state (amorphous state and glass transition, crystalline and semi-crystalline states) ; general thermomechanical behaviour and methods for the elaboration of polymers and polymer-forming.
Content: 19h Lectures + 6h Discussion sections
I. Amorphous polymers (7h)
- Introduction to mechanical testing and reminders on the different state domains. Dynamic mechanical analysis ; thermomechanical behaviour ; viscoelastic phenomenons: Maxwell models and Voigt model
- The glass transition: highlighting from the variation of the specific volume with temperature ; highlighting by DSC
- Molecular origin of the glass transition
- Influence of the chemical structure of polymers on the temperature of glass transition
Discussion section 1: Mechanical models
Discussion section 2: Dynamic mechanical analysis
II. Semi-crystalline polymers (3h)
- Crystalline structures of mass polymers. Crystal lamella ; spherulites
- Measurement of the crystallinity ratio. X-Ray diffraction ; density measurements ; DSC
- Melting point of crystalline domains. Influence of the chemical structure of polymers.
- Crystallisation kinetics
Discussion section 3: Cristallinity measurement
III. Rubber elasticity (4h): the phenomenon, the theory.
Discussion section 4: Measurements of Young's modulus and critical mass of a polymer
IV. Elaboration of polymers and polymer-forming (1.5h)
- Molding, extrusion techniques…
- Spinning techniques (obtention of fibers used in the textile industry and in the biomedical field, (manufacturing surgical materials).
V. Colloids and dispersions (4.5h): Generalities on colloids; applications of polymers to the stabilisation of colloidal suspensions
Introduction to sub-atomic physics - 3 ECTS
Goal: Acquire a basic knowledge of the composition of atomic nuclei, models to describe them, fundamental forces, interactions and special relativity.
Content : 8h Lectures and 4h Tutorials
- Introduction : particles, forces, nucleus, unities
- Radioactive decay
- History of nuclear physics : Rutherford experimentation
- Interactions probabilities, cross sections
- Nucleus models : liquid drop and nuclear shell models
- Special relativity
- P.E. Hodgson, "Introductory nuclear physics", Oxford University Press, 1997
- K. Heyde, "Basic ideas and concepts in nuclear physics - An introductory approach", IOP Publishing Ltd, 1999
- Kenneth S. Krane, "Introductory nuclear physics", John Wiley & sons, 1988
- N.A., Jelley, "Fundamentals of nuclear physics", Cambridge University Press, 1990
- W.S.C. Williams, "Nuclear and particle physics", Clarendon Press, 1996
- L. Valentin, "Physique subatomique - Noyaux et particules", (2 tomes), Hermann, 1982
- D. Blanc, "Eléments de physique nucléaire", Masson, 1960
Research Training - 3 ECTS
Goal: Immerse students in a research team of the Grenoble area in Nanosiences and Nanotechnologies.
Students spend 10 days in a research team and perform a research project under the supervision of a professor. They get a first contact with the Grenoble research environment in nanosciences and nanotechnologies.
Goal: Theoretical courses with a practice on real AFM and STM apparatus.
Prerequisites: Quantum mechanics, solid state physics.
Architecture of a Scanning-Probe Microscope
Instrumental aspects: piezo-electric actuators, displacements on the nanometer scale, regulation, tip effects ..
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM)
Principles of STM
Tunneling versus Field emission
STM imaging: the atomic resolution, origin of corrugation
STM spectroscopy : charge density waves, superconductors, nanotubes, inelastic spectroscopy, spin resolved STM
Nanomanipulation by means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Quantum corrals, AFM nanolithography, ...
This course is given by a Professor of an international university visiting the university Grenoble Alpes. The subject changes each year.